What are Hybrid Seed ?
By crossing two plants of the same variety, can create a hybrid seed. In cross-pollination, pollen from the male flower of one plant gets transferred to the female flower parts of another plant. After the female flower has pollinated, its ovary begins to swell and form fruit. A hybrid seed develops inside that fruit.
Unlike open-pollinated seeds (OP), hybrid seeds fall under the category of F1 types. Open-pollinated seeds arise from the simple exchange of pollen between parent plants.
Until a formula that produces consistently excellent results can be discovered through the cross-breeding of varieties, plant breeders record their results repeatedly. Years can pass before this process is complete. It is an attempt to combine the best genetic traits from both parent plants.
Many hybrid varieties possess traits like disease endurance, enhanced flavor or productivity, earlier maturity, etc. Different crops require different characteristics. As a rule, it is easier to get more out of hybrid seeds than their open-pollinated alternatives. Some open-pollinated varieties are so cherished for their flavor or other traits that their roots are saved from generation to generation and become heirloom varieties.
The seeds inside a hybrid tomato plant (for example) will carry both parent plant genetics. Because of this, their traits are less predictable. Open-pollinated varieties are better for people who like to save seeds from year to year.
Hybrid seeds are used by a relatively large proportion of commercial farmers because these seeds have improved traits from a commercial perspective.
A variety with these characteristics will usually have an increased yield, more consistent size, color, shape, and will be able to store for longer.
It aims to make farming more profitable for farmers, but the taste is a secondary consideration in many cases.For more ino about Agriculture
A common feature of Hybrid and Non-Hybrid seeds are as follow
- Hybrids are five times as expensive as conventional products since they take longer to develop and are more complicated to create.
- Hybrid seeds are to be purchased every year. Saving seeds is a possibility for the following year.
- In general, hybrids produce a higher yield and are more uniform than conventional varieties.
- Hybrids are easier to harvest since they produce in less time
- Hybrids are often inferior for flavor
- Non-Hybrid Seeds are cheaper to produce
- Some non-hybrid varieties produce fruit with odd shapes and blemishes
- Non-hybrids tend to be less vigorous and produce crops over a longer period.
- While non-hybrid varieties may have a better taste, they are usually short-lived
What are the benefits of hybrid seed?
Benefits of Hybrid Seed
- Bigger, more vigorous plants that look more similar.
- Seed Performance that is more consistent and better.
- Increased yields and earlier harvest.
- Hybrid seed Plants are less susceptible to environmental stress, insect pests, and plant diseases.
Demerits of Hybrid Seeds:
- The process of creating it costs a lot of money and time.
- The cost of seeds can vary.
- It is not possible to save seeds from hybrid plants.
- Hybrid plants, according to some, don’t produce as good tasting produce.
Pollination by insects and birds is the most common form of open-pollinated varieties. However, they are more genetically stable than hybrids, so they will produce seeds that are true to type; that is, they will produce identical plants to the parent plants, allowing them to be saved year after year.
However, it is essential to recognize that genes do change from generation to generation even in Open Pollinated varieties. Still, they are much more subtle as a result of a much slower rate of change. Generally, gardeners are not aware of such changes.
which generally have a relatively loose definition. In many cases, heirloom varieties are older varieties that are handed down from generation to generation. Heirloom varieties are typically those that have existed for 50 to 100 years. The end of the second world war is the most common cut-off point.
An open-pollinated variety but one that is not an heirloom is what this list is about. Hybridization allows new varieties to be created and stabilized through successive generations of breeding. Eventually, a hybrid can become an open-pollinated variety.
Genetical Modified Seeds
The development of genetically modified seeds (GMOs) has long been a debated topic in agriculture. GMO seed is an organism that incorporates genes from another species into it, rather than a hybrid one.
Some believe hybridization and selective breeding are simply accelerating events that would have occurred naturally over an extended period of time.
This has led to concerns regarding the unintended consequences of gene technology, which may include environmental weeds.
Comparison Of Hybrid Seed Versus Open Pollinated Seeds
Hybrid seeds are marketed as having various advantages for commercial food producers. Nevertheless, some of those benefits are not as tangible for a home gardener and often come with substantial downsides that make using hybrids less attractive.
In this regard, hybrid varieties tend to yield higher yields than open-pollinated varieties.
Hybrid seeds can be used to increase yield, but they are not the only way to achieve higher yields. In spite of this, it is easy to see why seed companies have chosen this pathway since it provides an ongoing revenue stream.
Additionally, commercial growers tend to focus on their marketable yield rather than their total output.
Blemishes on fruit are usually not an issue for the average home gardener.
Yield Distribution Over Time
In addition to this, some hybrid seeds may reduce the length of time it takes to harvest due to their increased uniformity, which is less well known. The ability to harvest more produce over a shorter time is a very attractive trait for commercial grows since it reduces labor costs when harvesting.
Flavor Of Hybrid Varieties Vs Heirloom Varieties
Another big reason why people grow their own food at home is the difference in flavor between what you get at the grocery store and what you grow yourself. Most often, improvements in hybrid traits are centered around yield, uniformity, shelf life, and disease resistance, with flavor rarely considered.
Sweet Corn hybrids, however, have often sought to retain the sweetness of corn after picking.
It was the variety sold at the local grocery store that had the worst taste.
It should be noted, however, that some hybrid tomatoes also performed well in the trial, which shows that some varieties have good flavor, but this is more of an exception.
Although hybrid varieties may benefit commercial growers, these benefits do not often translate well to home gardeners.
The reason for this is that specific characteristics, such as appearance, uniformity, and shelf life, are few and far between for the home gardener, coupled with other drawbacks, including price, flavor, and the inability to save seeds for the future plantings.
Hybrid seed market in India
Hybrid seeds market in India . In terms of hybrid seeds, Bt cotton dominates the market (41%), followed by maize (15%) and fruits and vegetables (13%), Paddy has a market share of (9%)only
Hybrid seeds examples
In India, the following three crop types generate the highest revenue for hybrid seeds:
The plant is resistant to bollworms.BT cotton is a variety of genetically modified organism (GMO) cotton. The plant is resistant to bollworms. Bacteria of the genus Bacillus thuringiensis produce BT toxins, and the gene coding in BT toxins can produce a natural insecticide in cells. The main cotton-producing states in India are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat.
Hybrid cotton is only grown on a large scale in India and China compared to the United States, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Brazil, Greece, Argentina, Australia, and Egypt. Conventional methods are used to develop hybrid cotton seeds in India. Cotton hybrids are developed in three steps. In the conventional method, males and females are identified and grown separately.”
Strong demand from the poultry and industrial sectors is directly linked to the growth of India’s hybrid maize seed market. Farmers are switching to maize cultivation from other crops due to the high yields and increasing demand for hybrid maize seeds.
“Chickens digest maize quickly, and maize is also low in fiber. Depending on the variety, maize contains varying amounts of nutrients. Both humans and animals can consume hybrid maize. Corn starch is also commonly used in corn oil production and in corn starch. India’s key hybrid maize-producing states are Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh.
Vegetables and fruits
Due to their short season and acceptance among Indians as an important part of the human diet, vegetables have a special significance in agriculture. In India, the population growth coupled with the increasing focus on good nutrition could increase the demand for hybrid vegetable seeds in the forecast period.
In India, the diversity of climate leads to the availability of different varieties of fruits. In India, there are around 1,000 varieties of mango.
Over the past two years, India produced close to 86 million metric tons of fruit. Most fruits were exported in 2015 in the form of mangoes, bananas, pomegranates, and grapes. In India, hybrid varieties of mango include Mallika, Sindhu, Manjeera, PKM 1, Jawahar, and PKM 2.
Advantages of Hybrid Seed ?
Bigger, more vigorous plants that look more similar.
Seed Performance that is more consistent and better.
Increased yields and earlier harvest.
Hybrid seed Plants are less susceptible to environmental stress, insect pests, and plant diseases.
What is the potential of seed market in India?
Owing to these factors, the Indian seed market is further expected to exhibit strong growth during 2021-2026. The market has been segmented by type in the report. Currently, grain seeds represent the largest seed type, accounting for more than a half of the total seed production.